منتديات خالد عبدالناصر

إذا كنت تحب السرور في الحياة فاعتن بصحتك، وإذا كنت تحب السعادة في الحياة فاعتن بخلقك، وإذا كنت تحب الخلود في الحياة فاعتن بعقلك، وإذا كنت تحب ذلك كله فاعتن بدينك.


    مراجعة ليلة الامتحان (قواعد)

    شاطر


    نقاط : 0
    تاريخ التسجيل : 31/12/1969

    مراجعة ليلة الامتحان (قواعد)

    مُساهمة   في السبت يناير 01, 2011 2:12 pm

    Grammar Revision مراجعة ليلة الامتحان

    Grammar Revision مراجعة ليلة الامتحان (قواعد)
    1- Have /Have got
    I've got a new dress.
    He has got a headache.
    Have you got any money?
    Has she got a green dress?
    She hasn't got a car?
    I have a new dress
    He has a headache
    Do you have any money?
    Does she have a green dress?
    She doesn't have a car?
    مع الكلمات التالية have نستخدم
    breakfast / lunch / supper / a drink / a cup of tea/a swim / a rest / a holiday / a good time / a party/a shower / a bath / a wash/ a discussion / an argument / a fight a haircut / an operation / a baby.
    - The past simple tense زمن الماضي البسيط- Noha walked down the road , she went through the door and pressed the button for the lift.
    - Noha didn't walk down the road
    نستخدم التصريف الثاني للفعل للتعبير عن الماضي البسيط
    Used to + inf.
    - When I was young I used to live in EI-Arish.
    B- The Past continuous tense زمن الماضي المستمر
    Was / were + verb + ing
    Between six and seven thin evening, I was having breakfast.
    - I was having lunch when the phone rang.
    While – as - just as –when ماضي مستمر ماضي بسيط (قاطع)/أو ماضي مستمر
    While I was having lunch the telephone rang.
    ماضي مستمر When ماضي بسيط
    I was having lunch when the telephone rang. The telephone rang while I was having lunch.
    - While I was studying, my mother was cooking lunch
    ( While + V + Ing ) ( Gerund) إذا لم يأتي فاعل بعدها يأتي
    While having lunch my friend came
    3- The past perfect tenseزمن الماضي التام had + P.P.
    When I got home, my mother had washed my clothes.
    After, when, as soon as, , Till, until ماضي تام ماضي بسيط
    Before / by the time ماضي بسيط ماضي تام
    ماضي بسيط منفى Till / Until ماضي تام
    After / As soon as I had done my homework, I slept.
    I had done my homework before/by the time I slept I didn't sleep until I had me my homework.
    4 - Comparative and superlative adjectivesمقارنة الصفات ( + صفةer + than ) المرحلة الثانية للصفة قصيرة المقطع تتكون من
    ( the + صفة + est ) المرحلة الثالثة للصفة قصيرة المقطع تتكون من
    - Eman Is taller than Abeer - Eman is the tallest girl in school
    (more ( less ) + صفة + than المرحلة الثانية للصفة طويلة المقطع تتكون من
    the most (the least ) + المرحلة الثالثة للصفة طويلة المقطع تتكون من
    -Gold is more expensive than silver. - Gold is the most expensive metal .
    as صفة as - He is as tall as his father. نستخدمها عند تساوى الصفتين
    not as (so) صفةas - He isn't as tall as his father. نستخدمها عند عدم تساوى الصفتين
    good better than the best
    bad worse than the worst
    5- Conjunctionsالروابط
    1-Although = though/even though (S + V) بالرغم من (يأتي بعدهم جملة كاملة )
    Although he's only 14,he's an expert at computers.
    2- Despite/in spite of ( noun/ gerund ) بالرغم من (يأتي بعدهم عبارة )
    * Despite his illness, he passed his exams.
    3-As well as = besides + in addition to ( noun/ gerund)بالإضافة إلى
    * Besides cooking for 20 people, I did all the washing up.
    4-But =, however =, yet
    * She drove very fast, however she missed the plane. However fast she drove, she missed the plane
    5- Because = since = as (S + V) (يأتي بعدهم جملة كاملة ) لان
    * Because /since we are early, I think we should wait outside.
    6- Because of = owing to = due to ( noun/ gerund) بسبب
    * Due to the bad weather, the match was cancelled.
    7- As Ions as = provided (that ) only if (S+V) (يأتي بعدهم جملة كاملة ) إذا /لو/طالما
    * I'll go provided ( that ) ( as long as ) you come with me.
    = I'll only go if you come with me. = I won't go unless you come with me.
    8- Not only + صيغة استفهامية + but + جملة كاملة + as well
    * Not only have you got top marks but you've got a prize as well
    9- So as to = in order to = to + inf. لكي
    * He opened the door in order to see who was there.
    10- So that = in order that ( Sفاعل + can/may/could/might+ verb )
    * He left early so that he could/ (might ) catch the train.
    11- So = therefore =that's why = - Consequently
    * My bike's broken, so I'll have to walk. *I missed the train, consequently I was late for school.
    The Passive المبني للمجهولam / is / are + p.p. ( Spoken ) 1. Simple present ( speak "s" ) مضارع بسيط
    am / is / are being + p.p. ( repaired 2. Present cont. ( is repairing ) مضارع مستمر
    was / were + p.p. (invited ) 3. Simple past ( invited ) ماضي بسيط
    was / were being + p.p. ( watched ) 4. past cont. ( was watching ) ماضي مستمر
    have / has been = p.p. ( paid ) 5. Present perfect ( has paid ) مضارع تام
    had been + p.p. ( picked ) 6. Past perfect ( had picked ) ماضي تام
    will be + pp). ( told ) 7. Future simple ( will tell ) مستقبل بسيط
    will have been + p.p. ( built ) 8. Future perfect ( will have built ) مستقبل تام
    going to be + p.p. ( invited ) 9. Going to ( going to invite me )
    10. People say / believe / think / suppose / cam / allege he is genius. It is said that he is genius / He is said to be genius.
    7- Relative clauses
    1-Who / that تحل محل فاعل عاقل وهم بمعنى (الذي/التي/الذين )
    He, she, they, I ,you , we
    This is the girl. She got high marks. This is the girl who / that got high marks.
    2- Who /whom تحل محل مفعول عاقل وهم بمعنى (الذي/التي/الذين)
    him, her, me, them, you, us
    This is my friend. You met him on Friday. This is my friend whom you met on Friday.
    3- Which /That تحل محل مفعول غير عاقل وهم بمعنى (الذي/التي/الذينthey, them, it
    - I drive the car. It is expensive. - I drive the car which / that is expensive^
    4- Whose تحل محل ضمائر الملكية
    's, his, her, your, our their, its ,my
    I met Manal. Her father is a doctor. I met Manal whose father is a doctor.
    5- Where للمكان This is the school. I learnt in it. This is the school where I learnt.
    6- When للزمانI met Tom. I was in England at that time. " I met Tom when I was in England
    whom / which لو سبقت الأقواس بحرف جر نستخدم
    I met my friends with whom I went to Alex.
    محل المكان لو اقترنت بحرف جر Which تحل
    I went to the library in which I read books . I went to the library where I read books .
    all وكذلك لو سبقت الاقواس بكلمة that لو كانت الجملة في المرحلة الثالثة من الصفات نستخدم
    9- Countable and uncountable nounsالأسماء التي تعد ولا تعد1- Countable nouns - a book, an egg, a camel books, eggs, camels -
    2-Uncountable nouns light, news, behaviour , cloth , meat, soap
    homework, petrol, music, advice, oil, food , information, luggage, bread , cake - time - experience, fish,
    يجب حفظ الأسماء التي لا تعد حفظا جيدا مع ملاحظة أن الأسماء التي لا تعد تعامل معاملة المفرد حيث أنها لا تفرد ولا تجمع
    1- هناك تعبيرات للكمية يجب معرفتها جيدا وهى كالتالي:
    some – a lot of – a few – a little - في الجملة المثبتة نستخدم
    some– a lot of تأتي مع الاسم الذي يعد والذي لا يعد
    a few مع اسم يعد a little مع اسم لا يعد
    any – many – much - أما في الجملة المنفية والاستفهامية فإننا نستخدم any تأتي مع الاسم الذي يعد والذي لا يعد
    many تأتي مع الاسم الذي يعد – much تأتى مع الاسم الذي لا يعد
    هناك تعبيرات للتجزئة يجب مراجعتها جيدا
    a bit of/ a piece of cloth / a sheet of paper / a slice of meat/ a loaf of bread / a bottle of milk / a jar pf jam / a tube of toothpaste / a bar of chocolate / a bar of soap
    10- The present perfect tense زمن المضارع التامhave / has + P.P.
    - I have bought 'a new shirt . - She has learnt English since 1996.
    lately تستخدم في النفي والاستفهام - I haven't seen him lately.
    recently تستخدم في الإثبات والاستفهام - I have joined a music club recently
    yet تستخدم في النفي والاستفهام - I haven't met her yet
    already تستخدم في الإثبات والاستفهام - I have already bought a new shirt.
    ever تستخدم في والاستفهام - Have you ever been to America?
    never تستخدم في النفي - I have never been to America.
    since تاريخ محدد تأتي مع - He hasn't met her since last week.
    For مدة محددة تأتي مع - He hasn't met her for a week.
    have gone يذهب لمكان ويظل هناك - He has gone to Aswan = (he is still there)
    have been يذهب لمكان ويعود - He has been to Aswan = (he came back)
    لاحظ التحويلات التالية لأنها هامة جدا
    - I last ate fish when I visited my uncle. I haven't eaten fish since I visited my uncle
    - I last ate fish was 3 weeks ago . It's 3 weeks since I ate fish .
    It's + مدة زمنية + since + جملة ماضي بسيط
    - Just /a moment ago - He left me a moment ago - He has just left me.
    11- Past tenses أزمنة الماضي
    للتعبير عن الماضي البسيط نستخدم التالي
    1- From + تاريخ في الماضي + to + تاريخ في الماضي - She studied at Giza School from 1 996 to 1 999
    2-In + تاريخ في الماضي - Noha was born in 1 989.
    مدة زمنيه + ago - Her family moved to Giza nine years ago.
    . for مدة زمنيه+ - She went to school for six years
    (have / has + been + verb + ing ) زمن المضارع التام المستمر
    - Ahmed has been working there (ever) since he passed his exams.
    - Ahmed has been working there since 1997. (ago) لتحويل هذة الجملة إلى
    - Ahmed began to work there 9 years ago
    need to + be + PP / need + verb +ing
    - The car is dirty. - It needs to be washed. - It needs washing.
    12- Reflexive Pronouns الضمائر المنعكسةI myself - he himself - she herself
    it itself - you yourself - yourselves / they themselves
    we ourselves - one oneself
    - I'll pay for myself. -He looked at himself in the mirror. - Ayah cut herself.
    - Who mended your car for you? No body, I repaired it myself.
    - I went school on my own = alone = without any help = with no help
    - I learned German by myself.
    13- Prepositions حروف الجر
    1- Noun + preposition اسم + حرف جر
    reason for تفسير / damage to /تلف لcause of سبب في /a solution to حل ل / advantage of ميزة expert on خبير في /disease of مرض / increase in زيادة في /function of وظيفة /decrease in نقص في
    2- Adjective + preposition صفة + حرف جر Delighted with/ Pleased with مسرور ب Disappointed with محبط من / Angry with غاضب من شخص
    Annoyed with/ Furious with متضايق من Bored with Fed up with متضجر من Good at جيد في
    Bad at سيئ في/ Hopeless at فاقد الأمل في /Brilliant at لامع ف/ Angry about annoyed about غاضب من worried about قلق على / happy about سعيد ب / excited about منفعل ب / proud of فخور ب
    afraid of / terrified of / scarce of / frightened of خائف من / ashamed of خجلان من
    3-Verb + Preposition فعل + حرف جر
    Apply for يتقدم لوظيفة/ Care for يهتم ب / Complain of يشكو من / Consist of يتكون من /Complain to يشكو من Belong to ينتمي ل / die of يموت من / crash into / bump into /run into /drive into يصطدم ب
    4-Verb + object + preposition فعل +حرف جر + مفعول borrow ... from blame ... for accuse ... of prepare ...for
    discourage…… from charge ...with inform ... about/of congratulate ... on
    - The police accused the thief of stealing my car. - The teacher prepared her class for the exam.
    Provided, provided that, as slog as, unless = If
    - You can borrow my book if you use it carefully
    - You can borrow my book provided you use it carefully
    - You can borrow my book provided that you use it carefully
    - You can borrow my book as long as you use it carefully
    Unless = if...... not- I'll go to the club unless I have to work, - I'll go to the club if I don't have to work.

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس نوفمبر 23, 2017 5:09 pm